Upregulation of Carbonyl Reductase 1 by Nrf2 as a Potential Therapeutic Intervention for Ischemia/ Reperfusion Injury during Liver Transplantation
Jae Hyun Kwon1,6,7, Jooyoung Lee2,6,7, Jiye Kim2,6, Varvara A. Kirchner3, Yong Hwa Jo4, Takeshi Miura5, Nayoung Kim2, Gi-Won Song1,6, Shin Hwang1,6, Sung-Gyu Lee1,6, Young-In Yoon1,6,*, and Eunyoung Tak2,6,*
1Division of Liver Transplantation and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea, 2Department of Convergence Medicine, Asan Medical Institute of Convergence Science and Technology; and Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea, 3Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery and Asan-Minnesota Institute for Innovating Transplantation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea, 5Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, Osaka 584-8540, Japan, 6Asan-Minnesota Institute for Innovating Transplantation, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05505, Korea, 7These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received January 4, 2019; Revised May 3, 2019; Accepted August 22, 2019.; Published online September 5, 2019.
© Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.

ABSTRACT
Currently, liver transplantation is the only available remedy for patients with end-stage liver disease. Conservation of transplanted liver graft is the most important issue as it directly related to patient survival. Carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) protects cells against oxidative stress and cell death by inactivating cellular membrane-derived lipid aldehydes. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury during living-donor liver transplantation is known to form reactive oxygen species. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether CBR1 transcription might be increased during liver I/R injury and whether such increase might protect liver against I/R injury. Our results revealed that transcription factor Nrf2 could induce CBR1 transcription in liver of mice during I/R. Pre-treatment with sulforaphane, an activator of Nrf2, increased CBR1 expression, decreased liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine transaminase, and reduced I/R-related pathological changes. Using oxygenglucose deprivation and recovery model of human normal liver cell line, it was found that oxidative stress markers and lipid peroxidation products were significantly lowered in cells overexpressing CBR1. Conversely, CBR1 knockdown cells expressed elevated levels of oxidative stress proteins compared to the parental cell line. We also observed that Nrf2 and CBR1 were overexpressed during liver transplantation in clinical samples. These results suggest that CBR1 expression during liver I/R injury is regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. In addition, CBR1 can reduce free radicals and prevent lipid peroxidation. Taken together, CBR1 induction might be a therapeutic strategy for relieving liver I/R injury during liver transplantation.
Keywords: carbonyl reductase 1, ischemia-reperfusion injury, lipid peroxidation, living-donor liver transplantation, Nrf2, oxidative stress


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31 August 2019 Volume 42,
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