Ultradian Rhythms in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Neurons and Developmental Processes
Doyeon Kim , Han Kyoung Choe , and Kyungjin Kim *
Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea
Received March 12, 2020; Revised April 22, 2020; Accepted May 11, 2020.; Published online June 3, 2020.
© Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.

ABSTRACT
Numerous physiological processes in nature have multiple oscillations within 24 h, that is, ultradian rhythms. Compared to the circadian rhythm, which has a period of approximately one day, these short oscillations range from seconds to hours, and the mechanisms underlying ultradian rhythms remain largely unknown. This review aims to explore and emphasize the implications of ultradian rhythms and their underlying regulations. Reproduction and developmental processes show ultradian rhythms, and these physiological systems can be regulated by short biological rhythms. Specifically, we recently uncovered synchronized calcium oscillations in the organotypic culture of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARN) kisspeptin neurons that regulate reproduction. Synchronized calcium oscillations were dependent on voltage-gated ion channel-mediated action potentials and were repressed by chemogenetic inhibition, suggesting that the network within the ARN and between the kisspeptin population mediates the oscillation. This minireview describes that ultradian rhythms are a general theme that underlies biological features, with special reference to calcium oscillations in the hypothalamic ARN from a developmental perspective. We expect that more attention to these oscillations might provide insight into physiological or developmental mechanisms, since many oscillatory features in nature still remain to be explored.
Keywords: calcium oscillation, development, kisspeptin, reproduction, ultradian rhythm


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30 June 2020 Volume 43,
Number 6, pp. 501~590

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