Mol. Cells 2017; 40(12): 889~896  https://doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2017.0263
Nuclear Bodies Built on Architectural Long Noncoding RNAs: Unifying Principles of Their Construction and Function
Takeshi Chujo, and Tetsuro Hirose*
Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan
*Correspondence: hirose@igm.hokudai.ac.jp
Received October 17, 2017; Revised November 20, 2017; Accepted November 20, 2017.; Published online December 20, 2017.
© Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).
ABSTRACT
Nuclear bodies are subnuclear, spheroidal, and membraneless compartments that concentrate specific proteins and/or RNAs. They serve as sites of biogenesis, storage, and sequestration of specific RNAs, proteins, or ribonucleoprotein complexes. Recent studies reveal that a subset of nuclear bodies in various eukaryotic organisms is constructed using architectural long noncoding RNAs (arcRNAs). Here, we describe the unifying mechanistic principles of the construction and function of these bodies, especially focusing on liquid-liquid phase separation induced by architectural molecules that form multiple weakly adhesive interactions. We also discuss three possible advantages of using arcRNAs rather than architectural proteins to build the bodies: position-specificity, rapidity, and economy in sequestering nucleic acid-binding proteins. Moreover, we introduce two recently devised methods to discover novel arcRNA-constructed bodies; one that focuses on the RNase-sensitivity of these bodies, and another that focuses on “semi-extractability” of arcRNAs.
Keywords: architectural RNA, liquid-liquid phase separation, lowcomplexity
domain, multivalency, nuclear body, prion-like domain


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31 December 2017 Volume 40,
Number 12, pp. 889~985

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