Molecules and Cells

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Fig. 3.

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Fig. 3. The chronological pathophysiological events during mild and severe COVID-19 infection. RBC, red blood cell; NK cells, natural killer cells; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; IL, interleukins; CCL, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand; IFN, interferon; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; ssRNA, single strand RNA; dsRNA, double strand RNA; RIG-I, retinoic acid-inducible gene I; MDA5, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5; NLRP3, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3; DAMPs, danger/damage associated molecular pattern; PAMP, pathogen associated molecular pattern; MAVS, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein; TLR, toll-like receptor; ERGIC, endoplasmic-reticulum–Golgi intermediate compartment; DMV, double membrane vesicle; DMS, double membrane spherules; RTC, replication and transcription complex; ADE, antibody-dependent disease enchantment; MHC, major histocompatibility complex; CXCL, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand; HLA, human leukocyte antigen; ASC, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD; CTL, cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Mol. Cells 2021;44:408~421
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